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透析“泵”的噪音

文章出处:责任编辑:人气:-发表时间:2017-09-08 09:29【

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一般,脉动源在液体泵内有四种类型:
(1)由泵叶轮或活塞产生的离散频率分量
(2)由高流速引起的宽带湍流能
(3)由气蚀、闪蒸和水锤引起的宽带噪声的间歇振荡构成冲击噪声
(4)当液流通过障碍物和管线系统的侧向支流时,因周期性的涡旋引起流动诱发的脉动,可能在离心泵内产生压力波动的二次流流谱变化。

       在非设计工况流量下运行时尤其如此。流线上所示的数字是下列流动过程原理的定位:
由于流场里高速和低速区之间的边界层互相作用,大部分这种非稳定流型产生涡流,例如,因障碍物周围的液流或通过死水区引起,或由双向流引起。当这些涡流冲击侧壁时,涡流,即涡旋就转化为压力波动,并且可以引起管线或泵部件的局部振荡。管线系统的有声响应可能强烈地影响涡流扩散的频率和幅度。研究工作己经表明,当系统有声的共鸣与噪音源自然的或优先的发生频率一致时,涡流是强烈的。

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        在发生气蚀时,在一台8000hp(5970kW)泵的壳体上并靠近入口管线所测得的噪声等级。
       气蚀产生能激发许多频率的宽带冲击;然而,在这种情况下,叶片共有频率(叶轮叶片数目乘每秒转数)和它的倍数占支配地位。这种类型的气蚀噪声通常产生非常高频率的噪音,好称之为“爆裂声”。

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气蚀和闪蒸

        对于许多液体的泵送系统来说,一般都有一些闪蒸度和与泵或输送系统里压力控制阀有关的气蚀。由于通过节流有较大的流动损失,因此,高流动速率产生更严重的气蚀。
在容积泵的吸入管线,活塞可能产生高振幅脉动并由系统声学性能而得到加强,并且引起动压力周期性地达到液体的汽化压力,即便吸入口静压可能大于这个压力。当循环压力增大时,汽泡破裂,产生噪声并冲击系统,而且这可能导致腐蚀,也产生讨厌的噪声。

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